Sha•bat, also spelled Shabbat, is the seventh day following the world’s creation. The core root of this word is ‘she•vet,’ which means ‘sitting’ or ‘being settled.’ In Biblical Hebrew, ‘she•vet’ is also considered an Infinitive Absolute — the very basic, nucleus form of a word or concept. It is, hence, the core word for ‘stationary.’ The connection between sitting and Sha•bat is simple. The ancient idea of sitting was the exact opposite of working. In reference to Genesis 2, it is in contrast to ‘creating,’ which God calls ‘work.’
“And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because that in it He had rested from all his work which God created and made”
The name, Sha•bat, then is also connected to the number 7 She•va which is explained in the biblical text above.
Many words are related to the name Sabbath. The sabbatical, which is a period of paid leave granted to a college teacher for study or travel, is traditionally every seventh year. The Bible schools named ‘Yeshiva’ are also derived from the same root. The seven Hebrew mourning days are called Shiva. The great feast of Shavuot (which is the same as the Pentecost) is held on the 50th day after Passover (7 weeks plus one day). The Pentecost is held on the seventh Sunday after Easter.
The importance of these holidays is in their purpose -— providing resting days just as the Sabbath is and in similar sequences of the number seven -— after the seven days of creation.