No•gah is the second farthest planet from earth after Mercury (Ko•chav Cha•ma). It is the brightest planet in our Solar System after the sun and moon. No•gah was associated with the female Babylonian goddess, Ishtar, and this is the source of the English name ‘star.’ Later, Ishtar became the Greek Aphrodite and the Roman Venus.
The Hebrew name for this planet is ‘clean’ of pagan influence; No•gah in the Bible means ‘bright light,’ which matches the visual characteristics of this planet. The word No•gah is mentioned both in the Old and New Testament, but in the Old Testament it is an adjective whereas in the New Testament it is the actual planet. The English name here is ‘the morning star.’
“I am the root and the offspring of David; the Bright and Morning Star”
In the next few days, we’ll look at earth from high above − we’ll cover the Hebrew names of the planets and the stars that were known in ancient times and are still in use today. The planets were roughly divided in ancient times (and nowadays by the IAU, the International Astronomical Union) into two types: the Fixed stars and the Moving stars. The moving stars category includes our seven Solar System planets. They are called in Hebrew (in plural form) Koch•vey Le•chet. The singular is Ko•chav Le•chet. The word ‘le•chet’ means ‘going’ or ‘walking.’ In Biblical Hebrew, ‘le•chet’ is considered an Infinitive Absolute − the very basic, nucleus form of a word or concept. It is, hence, the core word for ‘moving.’ In fact, the mere English name ‘planet’ comes from the Greek name, πλανήτης (planetes), which means ‘moving about’ (something like ‘moving back and forth’).
The other group was named by the IAU ‘the Fixed Stars.’ In Hebrew, they are called Koch•vey She•vet. The singular is Ko•chav She•vet. The word ‘she•vet’ means ‘sitting’ or ‘being settled.’ In Biblical Hebrew ‘she•vet’ is also considered an Infinitive Absolute − the very basic, nucleus form of a word or concept. It is, hence, the core word for ‘stationary.’ Of course, our current understanding is that nothing is really fixed in outer space, but because of the great distance of these stars from Earth (A•retz) they look as though they were stationary (She•vet).
The IAU indeed, changes its definitions from time to time as the science of Astronomy develops, but we still count seven planets in our Solar System and still call them ‘moving stars,’ both in Hebrew and English since from the Biblical era to today.
Some of the planets perhaps were not known during the biblical era and do not have Hebrew names (Uranus and Neptune).